AdditionWorksheets For This SkillMore SkillsFree Online Tests Trial

Before you add multi-digit numbers, you must memorize the results of adding single-digit numbers, which are shown in the following table:

Addition Table
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
4 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
6 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
7 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
8 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
9 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

To add multi-digit numbers, write the numbers down so that the digits with the same place value are aligned in the same column. Starting from the Ones place, add the digits in each column as you are adding single-digit numbers. Work your way up to the highest place.

If the sum of the digits in one column is more than 10, then carry over the face value in the Tens place of the sum to the next higher column. Treat carry-over as an addend for each column. Let us illustrate how to add two multi-digit numbers using an example.

Example: what is the sum of 289 and 361?
First, we add the digits in the ones place : 9 + 1 = 10, so we need to carry 1 over to the tens place and write down 0 in the ones place of the sum. Then we add the digits in the tens place : 8 + 6 = 14 , do not forget the carry over : 14 + 1 = 15, so we need to carry 1 over to the hundreds place and write down 5 in the tens place of the sum. Finally we add the digits in the hundreds place : 2 + 3 = 5, do not forget the carry over : 5 + 1 = 6, so we just write down 6 in the hundreds place of the sum.

Adding three or more numbers can be done in the same way. You could also add two numbers first and then add the sum to the third number, and keep adding until all the numbers are added. An important fact is that the order or grouping of numbers during addition does not affect the result.

SubtractionWorksheets For This SkillMore SkillsFree Online Tests Trial

Subtraction is the opposite of addition. To subtract multi-digit numbers, write the minuend on top of the subtrahend and make sure that the digits with the same place value are aligned in the same column. Starting from the Ones place, subtract the digits in each column as you are subtracting single-digit numbers. Work your way up to the highest place.

If in some column, the minuend digit is less than the subtrahend digit, then 1 needs to be borrowed from the next higher column. Let us illustrate how to subtract two multi-digit numbers using an example.

Example: what is the difference of 289 and 361?
Since 289 is less than 361, we are going to calculate 361 - 289 = ?
Firstly, we subtract the digits in the ones place. Since 1 is less than 9, we need to borrow 1 from the tens place to make it 11. Now 11 - 9 = 2, just write down 2 in the ones place of the difference. Then we subtract the digits in the tens place. Since 6 is less than 8, we need to borrow 1 from the hundreds place to make it 16. Now 16 - 8 = 8, and we also have to subtract 1 from 8 because we borrowed 1 in the tens place before. Since 8 minus 1 is 7, just write down 7 in the tens place of the difference. Finally we subtract the digits in the hundreds place : 3 - 2 = 1, but we have to return 1 borrowed before, so we got nothing left in the hundreds place of the difference.

MultiplicationWorksheets For This SkillMore SkillsFree Online Tests Trial

Before you multiply multi-digit numbers, you must memorize the results of multiplying single-digit numbers, which are shown in the following table:

Multiplication Table
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
3 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27
4 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36
5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
6 0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54
7 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63
8 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72
9 0 9 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81

Let us illustrate how to multiply multi-digit numbers using an example.

Example: what is the product of 289 and 63?
Firstly, we multiply 289 by 3. Since 9 times 3 is 27, write down 7 in the ones place and carry 2 over to the tens place. Since 8 times 3 is 24, 24 plus 2 is 26, write down 6 in the tens place and carry 2 over to the hundreds place. Since 2 times 3 is 6, 6 plus 2 is 8, write down 8 in the hundreds place. Then we multiply 289 by 60. Since 9 times 6 is 54, write down 4 in the tens place and carry 5 over to the hundreds place. Since 8 times 6 is 48, 48 plus 5 is 53, write down 3 in the hundreds place and carry 5 over to the thousands place. Since 2 times 6 is 12, 12 plus 5 is 17, write down 7 in the thousands place and carry 1 over to the ten-thousands place. Since there is no more digit to multiply, just write down 1 in the ten-thousands place. Finally, add the two rows, 867 and 17340 and we get the answer : 18207 .

Tricks and Tips
When you multiply a whole number by 10, append one zero to that number.
When you multiply a whole number by 100, append two zeros to that number.
When you multiply a whole number by 1000, append three zeros to that number.

DivisionWorksheets For This SkillMore SkillsFree Online Tests Trial

Division is the opposite of multiplication. If your skills of multiplication is rusty, you can not do division. There are two methods for doing division: short division and long division. Long division is more general. We will illustrate how to do long division using an example.

Example: how much is divided 3054 by 27 ?
Firstly, we find out that 3 is too small and we move the the next digit 0. It is easy to see that 30 divided by 27 is 1 with remainder 3. Write down 1 in the hundreds place of the quotient and write down the remainder 3. The next digit in the dividend is 5, so we are going to divide 35 by 27, which should be 1 with remainder 8. Write down 1 in the tens place of the quotient and write down the remainder 8. The next digit in the dividend is 4, so we are going to divide 84 by 27. Here we need to try out something. Since 2 times 27 is 54, which seems too smaller than 84, and 3 times 27 is 81, which is smaller than 84 but very close to 84, we figure out that 84 divided by 27 is 3 with remainder 3. Write down 3 in the ones place of the quotient and write down the remainder 3. That is it, 3054 divided by 27 gives a quotient 113 with a remainder 3.

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